Mon. Apr 15th, 2024

Content Assessment: [2022/2023 Annual Update] International Cyber Law in Practice: Interactive Toolkit

Information - 96%
Insight - 97%
Relevance - 93%
Objectivity - 99%
Authority - 99%



A short percentage-based assessment of the qualitative benefit of the recently updated Cyber Law Toolkit published by the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (NATO CCDCOE).

Editor’s Note: The Cyber Law Toolkit is a dynamic interactive web-based resource for legal professionals and scholars working on matters at the intersection of international law and cyber operations.

The Toolkit consists of a growing number of hypothetical scenarios, each of which contains a description of cyber incidents inspired by real-world examples and accompanied by detailed legal analysis. The aim of the analysis is to provide a thorough examination of the applicability of international law to diverse scenarios and related legal issues. The Toolkit was launched in May 2019 in Tallinn, Estonia, and is available free of charge.

The Cyber Law Toolkit project is currently supported by the following partner institutions: the Czech National Cyber and Information Security Agency (NÚKIB), the International Committee of the Red Cross (ICRC), the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence (CCDCOE), the University of Exeter, United Kingdom, the U.S. Naval War College, United States, and Wuhan University, China.

2022/2023 Annual Update Extract Published with Permission*

The Cyber Law Toolkit


The Cyber Law Toolkit is an established go-to resource for professionals and scholars working on international law and cyber operations. The Toolkit is updated in an ongoing manner, with the current iteration representing the 2022/2023 update. The Toolkit‘s core assets are hypothetical scenarios, each of which contains a description of realistic cyber incidents inspired by real-world examples and accompanied by detailed legal analysis written in accessible language.

The Toolkit addresses a gap between academia and practice as far as international cyber law is concerned. Although there is a growing body of research in this area of international law, its outputs are often not easily adaptable to the needs of legal practitioners dealing with cyber incidents on a daily basis. The Toolkit attempts to bridge this gap by providing accessible yet precise practical solutions to scenarios based on real-life examples of cyber operations with international law relevance.

The Toolkit is primarily addressed to legal practitioners with a working knowledge of international law. However, the language used is comprehensive and explanatory and should be generally accessible to non-lawyers, as well. Each concept that underpins the analysis is explained in detail to provide a complete understanding of the relevant scenario. Whilst the target audience consists of those with a degree of familiarity with international law and specifically cyber law, it does not preclude those with a general interest in the area, but no relevant expertise, from reading, using and enjoying the content of the Toolkit.

The analytical focus of the Toolkit is on international law applicable to cyber operations. Since 2021, it also contains a regularly updated overview of the publicly available national positions on the application of international law to cyber operations. By contrast, it does not specifically address the domestic law of any particular country, nor does it adopt the view of any country or group of countries in its analysis. As such, it is applicable to all countries in the world.

To keep pace with the recent developments in the cyber security domain and remain a relevant source for practitioners and scholars alike, the Toolkit is updated regularly on the basis of internal research and through external submissions.

Current Example Scenarios: 28 Hypothetical Scenarios

Each scenario contains a description of cyber incidents inspired by real-world examples, accompanied by a detailed legal analysis. The aim of the analysis is to examine the applicability of international law to the scenarios and the issues they raise.

Real World Examples (2007-2022)

Shared examples present instructive information on real-world incidents that have inspired the analysis (and scenarios) highlighted in the Cyber Law Toolkit project.















National Positions of Selected Countries

An overview of the national positions on international law in cyberspace for listed countries.

Access the complete toolkit via the NATO Cooperative Cyber Defence Centre of Excellence.

Reference: International cyber law: interactive toolkit. (2022). Retrieved 24 February 2023, from

* Published with permission via Creative Commons (CC BY-SA 4.0).

Additional Reading

Source: ComplexDiscovery


Have a Request?

If you have information or offering requests that you would like to ask us about, please let us know, and we will make our response to you a priority.

ComplexDiscovery OÜ is a highly recognized digital publication focused on providing detailed insights into the fields of cybersecurity, information governance, and eDiscovery. Based in Estonia, a hub for digital innovation, ComplexDiscovery OÜ upholds rigorous standards in journalistic integrity, delivering nuanced analyses of global trends, technology advancements, and the eDiscovery sector. The publication expertly connects intricate legal technology issues with the broader narrative of international business and current events, offering its readership invaluable insights for informed decision-making.

For the latest in law, technology, and business, visit


Generative Artificial Intelligence and Large Language Model Use

ComplexDiscovery OÜ recognizes the value of GAI and LLM tools in streamlining content creation processes and enhancing the overall quality of its research, writing, and editing efforts. To this end, ComplexDiscovery OÜ regularly employs GAI tools, including ChatGPT, Claude, Midjourney, and DALL-E, to assist, augment, and accelerate the development and publication of both new and revised content in posts and pages published (initiated in late 2022).

ComplexDiscovery also provides a ChatGPT-powered AI article assistant for its users. This feature leverages LLM capabilities to generate relevant and valuable insights related to specific page and post content published on By offering this AI-driven service, ComplexDiscovery OÜ aims to create a more interactive and engaging experience for its users, while highlighting the importance of responsible and ethical use of GAI and LLM technologies.